The main features or the salient features of GST (Goods and service tax). GST is a centralized tax structure on goods and services throughout the country. It is consumption tax that is collected on the basis of the value added at each stage. The introduction of GST would be a very significant step in the field of indirect tax reforms in India. By amalgamating a large number of Central and State taxes into a single tax, it would mitigate cascading or double taxation in a major way and pave the way for a common national market. From the consumer point of view, the biggest advantage would be in terms of a reduction in the overall tax burden on goods, which is currently estimated to be around 25%-30%. Introduction of GST would also make Indian products competitive in the domestic and international markets.
Features of GST
GST will bring numerous benefits to everyone viz industries, government and citizens. Some of these benefits are listed below:
1. GST would replace the following taxes currently levied and collected by the Centre
a) Central Excise duty;
b) Duties of Excise (Medicinal and Toilet Preparations);
c) Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance);
d) Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Products);
e) Additional Duties of Customs (commonly known as CVD);
f) Special Additional Duty of Customs (SAD);
g) Service Tax;
h) Cesses and surcharges in so far as they relate to supply of goods or services.
2. State taxes that would be subsumed within the GST are:
a) State VAT;
b) Central Sales Tax;
c) Purchase Tax;
d) Luxury Tax;
e) Entry Tax (All forms);
f) Entertainment Tax (except those levied by the local bodies);
g) Taxes on advertisements;
h) Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling;
i) State cesses and surcharges in so far as they relate to supply of goods or services.
3. Dual Goods and Service Tax: CGST and SGST/UTGST.
4. Inter-State Transactions and the IGST Mechanism: The Centre would levy and collect the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) on all inter-State supply of goods and services. The IGST mechanism has been designed to ensure seamless flow of input tax credit from one State to another. The inter-State seller would pay IGST on the sale of his goods to the Central Government after adjusting credit of IGST, CGST and SGST on his purchases (in that order). The exporting State will transfer to the Centre the credit of SGST used in payment of IGST. The importing dealer will claim credit of IGST while discharging his output tax liability (both CGST and SGST) in his own State. The Centre will transfer to the importing State the credit of IGST used in payment of SGST.
5. Destination-Based Consumption Tax: GST will be a destination-based tax. This implies that all SGST collected will ordinarily accrue to the State where the consumer of the goods or services sold resides.
6. Computation of GST on the basis of invoice credit method: The liability under the GST will be invoice credit method i.e. cenvat credit will be allowed on the basis of invoice issued by the suppliers.
7. Payment of GST: The CGST and SGST are to be paid to the accounts of the central and states respectively.
8. Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN): A not-for-profit, Non-Government Company called Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN), jointly set up by the Central and State Governments will provide shared IT infrastructure and services to the Central and State Governments, tax payers and other stakeholders.
9. INPUT TAX CREDIT (ITC) SET OFF: ITC for CGST & SGST will be taken for taxes allowed against central and state respectively.
10. GST on Imports: Centre will levy IGST on inter-State supply of goods and services. Import of goods will be subject to basic customs duty and IGST.
11. Maintenance of Records: A taxpayer or exporter would have to maintain separate details in books of account for availment, utilization or refund of Input Tax Credit of CGST, SGST and IGST.
12. Administration of GST: Administration of GST will be the responsibility of the GST Council, which will be the apex policy making body of the GST. Members of GST Council comprised of the Central and State ministers in charge of the finance portfolio.
13. Goods and Service Tax Council: The GST Council will be a joint forum of the Centre and the States. The Council will make recommendations to the Union and the States on important issues like tax rates, exemption list, threshold limits, etc. One-half of the total number of Members of the Council will constitute the quorum of GST council.
14. Arrears of tax to be recovered using various modes including detaining and sale of goods, movable and immovable property of defaulting taxable person.
15. GST would apply to all goods and services except Alcohol for human consumption.
16. GST on five specified petroleum products (Crude, Petrol, Diesel, ATF and Natural gas) would be applicable from a date to be recommended by the GSTC.
17. Tobacco and tobacco products would be subject to GST. In addition, the Centre would continue to levy Central Excise duty.
18. A common threshold exemption would apply to both CGST and SGST. Taxpayers with an annual turnover of Rs. 20 lac (Rs. 10 lac for special category States as specified in article 279A of the Constitution) would be exempt from GST. A compounding option (i.e. to pay tax at a flat rate without credits) would be available to small taxpayers (including to specified category of manufacturers and service providers) having an annual turnover of up to Rs. 50 lac. The threshold exemption and compounding scheme would be optional.
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